MAGDA S. HANAFY*, HANAN A. MOHAMED**, ELHAM A. ABD EL-HADY***
*Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
***Genetic and Cytology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Abstract. Two exposure systems of an extremely low frequency electric field were used, the first was an experimental model (50 Hz, 6 kV/m strength) and the second was the high voltage transmission lines passing through an open agricultural field (50 Hz, 66 kV/11 m = 6 kV/m). The effects of the two exposure systems were investigated on mitosis, meiosis and pollen grains viability in the wheat plant. Also, the effect of those two fields on some morphological characters and some physiological parameters were estimated. Classification of the water soluble protein (WSP) extracted from the exposed and unexposed grains as well as their molecular weight distributions were also investigated by using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) technique. The absorption spectra of the WSP were also measured at wavelength range 200–600 nm. The results indicated that the electric field of both systems showed a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and the treated wheat flower buds showed a marked increase in the frequency of the nonviable pollen grains. The results also indicated remarkable changes in the morphological characters where the stem length increased but the spike weight and the number of grains in the spike decreased. Further, the data showed an increase in the total chlorophyll content and the total carbohydrates in the grains. On the other hand, the data indicated that the molecular structure of the extracted WSP changed the amount of protein in the bands of exposed grains decreased and their molecular weights changed.
Key words: electric field, wheat plant, cytological, morphological, physiological analysis, protein molecular structure.
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