Biochemistry Department, Biophysics Group, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt
Present address: Department of Science, King Khalid Millitary College, P.O. Box 22140, Riyadh-11495, Saudi Arabia

Abstract. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of non-thermal microwaves (NTMws) and its late effects on hemoglobin (Hb) and other organs such as liver and kidney. In the present work, 40 Swiss male albino rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was used as a control. Group 2 and 3 were exposed directly to microwave irradiation of frequency 3.5 GHz (low power) for periods of one and two months respectively. Like group 3, Group 4 was watched for 50 days after that exposure. Temperature inside the laboratory ranged between 25 °C to 27 °C. The liver function tests such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin and total proteins and so the kidney function tests such as urea and creatinine were measured. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) and the oxidative stress parameter malonaldialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The biophysical parameters such as electrical conductivity and intrinsic viscosity of Hb were measured. All investigated liver enzymes were significantly increased compared with the control. Urea and Creatinine were significantly increased compared with the control. The applied microwave irradiation also caused a significant increase in the plasma lipid peroxidation marker (malonaldialdehyde, MDA) while a significant decrease in glutathione concentration was observed. Results consequently suggest that the redox potential of glutathione (GSH) and nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH/NAD) were disturbed as a result of the exposure. The electrical conductivity of Hb was significantly increased in the microwave exposed rats compared with the control. The value of electrical conductivity of Hb reaches its maximum value following the increase in duration of microwave exposure. The significant increase in electrical conductivity of Hb molecule may be due to the increase in its surface charge density which increase charge transfer through the medium. The intrinsic viscosity of Hb was significantly increased compared with the control. Delayed effect studies proved that the microwave irradiation may cause injuries to the blood generation system and other tissues.
Key word : microwaves radiation, hemoglobin, electrical conductivity, oxidative stress. 

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