KHARMAN AKRAM, FARAJ, M.M. ELIAS, SARAH BAATOUT
* Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimanya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq,
**Department of Physics, College of Science, “Al-Nahrain” University, Baghdad, Iraq
*** Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol, Belgium
Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of different doses and doserates
of X- and gamma rays on human lymphocytes. After separating mononuclear cells with
lymphocytes from human peripheral blood, they were irradiated, either with X-ray doses (0.25, 0.5, 1,
2 and 4 Gy) at a dose rate of 0.28 Gy/min or with doses (15.65, 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 mGy) at
dose rate of 20 mGy/min or with 60Co gamma ray doses (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 Gy) at dose rate of 33
mGy/min. Using flow cytomtery the amount and percentage of apoptotic and lymphocytes were
measured. In contrast to low X-ray doses with low dose rate, induction of apoptosis was significant at
high X-ray doses with high dose rate. Moreover, apoptosis was significant at high gamma ray doses at
low dose rate. We conclude that apoptosis is a good biological marker for radiation response, and the
induction of apoptosis depends on dose, and not, on dose rate.
Key words: X-ray, gamma ray, apoptosis, flow cytometry.
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